A mathematical tool to study X-ray bursts

Neutron stars can rip off gas from a nearby companion star and pull this material towards them; a process called accretion. The material that is accreted on to the neutron star undergoes nuclear reactions that can cause detonations generating more energy than an atomic bomb. Such thermonuclear bursts are observed as brief, bright flashes of X-ray emission that last for seconds to hours and repeat on a timescale of hours to months.

Not surprisingly, these violent explosions can be destructive to the surroundings of a neutron star. Indeed, evidence has been accumulating that X-ray bursts have a profound effect on the  accretion flow that transports material toward the neutron star. For example, the explosions can cool, blow away, or accelerate the in-falling flow of material. One way to investigate this is by studying how the X-ray energy spectrum of the accretion flow changes during an X-ray burst. This is not an easy task, however, because the X-ray burst emission typically outshines that of the accretion flow. Small changes in the weak accretion emission are therefore swamped by the bright burst emission.

Mathematical techniques that involve decomposing complex data into matrices (e.g., “non-negative matrix factorization”) have been previously applied to reveal subtle changes in the X-ray emission of super-massive and stellar-mass black holes. Motivated by those successes, we investigated the applicability of such techniques to study changes in the accretion emission induced by X-ray bursts.

For this purpose we used high-quality data obtained with the NuSTAR satellite of a well-known neutron star X-ray binary and thermonuclear burster 4U 1608-52. Our case study revealed that these mathematical techniques can be a very powerful tool to reveal changes in the accretion emission that remain hidden in conventional spectral analysis. Applying these techniques to NuSTAR data is particularly promising, as this instrument can provide valuable information on the  accretion geometry, that helps interpret the results from the X-ray burst analysis.

Paper link: ADS


Artist impression of NASA’s NuSTAR mission (launched in 2012). Image credits: NASA.